write a essay 2directions causal analysis

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For rough draft credit, you must complete at least 2 full paragraphs MINIMUM and submit to Canvas here.

The rough draft is not worth any points. Why do it? If you submit a rough draft, you will get:

  • timely feedback from the instructor
  • feedback from your peers
  • a plagiarism check before your final draft
  • the option to complete a rewrite contract for your final draft of the essay

Essay Structure Worksheet (PDF)

Essay Structure Worksheet (Microsoft Word)

Works Cited Sample Page

Sample Essay

MLA Format Guide

Essay #2 Directions:

Causal Analysis

DIRECTIONS:

In a six-paragraph, academic essay, please explore the main contributing causes (at least 3) of the problem you explored in Essay #1. Please be sure the causes you name are specific to the problem. Determine, through a compare and contrast essay, which contributing cause is most responsible for the problem. Interview someone you know for their thoughts on the causes. Most importantly, provide evidence from at least 5 outside sources (5 from Pierce College Library Databases and 1 interview with someone you know). THESE SOURCES MUST BE DIFFERENT THAN THE ONES YOU USED IN ESSAY #1.

  • Each body paragraph should directly compare causes to each other.
  • Prove that one contributing cause is most responsible using 6 outside sources
  • Please do not explore solutions to this problem; that will be the subject of our essay #3
  • Take time to fully understand the difference between cause, problem, and effect. Confusing these terms can cause problems down the line

THESIS FOR ESSAY #2!

Your thesis should tell:

  1. What the limited topic is
  2. What your side is
  3. How you know your side is correct

Example:

  1. The 3 biggest causes of disinformation today the small number of people who control most of the media, an active information war perpetrated by a hostile foreign country, and news outlets that rely on freelance journalists who are undereducated and do not have time to investigate truth properly.
  2. The most responsible cause is the small number of people who control most of the media
  3. We know this is true because the last two causes would in fact be mitigated if America had a variety of reliable news outlets to cover these issues.

Sample Thesis:

The 3 biggest causes of disinformation today the small number of people who control most of the media, an active information war perpetrated by a hostile foreign country, and news outlets that rely on freelance journalists who are undereducated and do not have time to investigate truth properly.

The most responsible cause is the small number of people who control most of the media and we know this is true because the last two causes would in fact be mitigated if America had a variety of reliable news outlets to cover these issues.

REQUIRED ELEMENTS:

  • An introductory paragraph with an introductory strategy and a thesis (6-12 sentences long total
  • Thesis must contain a limited topic, an argument, and an explanation.
  • Your research must come from 6 different sources (THESE SOURCES MUST BE DIFFERENT THAN THE ONES YOU USED IN ESSAY #1):
    • 5 articles or essays from any of the Pierce College Library Databases.
    • 1 interview with a person you know about their ideas on the causes of the problem
      • Use the person’s last name in the parenthetical. Also list the full name on the works cited page along with the words “personal interview” and the date.
    • 4 body paragraphs, each with 8-12 sentences, properly structured.
      • Use quotes to provide evidence
      • Introduce and cite your quotes and evidence
      • For every one sentence of summary or quote, include at least 2 sentences of analysis
    • A concluding paragraph of 6-12 sentences with a developed concluding strategy and thesis (restated).
    • The essay must be 6 paragraphs, typed, and double spaced in MLA format
    • The essay must maintain formal academic tone
    • Please include a works cited page

USING QUOTES

A quote must be introduced and give a parenthetical citation. Be sure to properly punctuate!

The parenthetical citation gives the author’s last name and page number. If there is no author, use the title. If there is no page number, skip the page number.

Cite any information you get from an outside source. Each sentence that contains information must have its own parenthetical.

  • Example: According to evidence, “quoting helps your argument” (Smith 45).
  • No author? Use the title. Example: According to evidence, “quoting helps your argument” (“On Quoting” 45).
  • No page number? Skip the page number. Example: According to evidence, “quoting helps your argument” (Smith).

IMPORTANT!

Avoid language like:

  • I believe
  • I think
  • In my opinion

Instead, just state the idea as if it were fact.

  1. Explain how this evidence proves your thesis. What kind of evidence is it? What does it show?
  • . [Finish this statement: This evidence proves my argument is correct because it shows that…]

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Further explain how this evidence proves your thesis. What kind of evidence is it? What does it show?
  2. [Finish this statement: This evidence proves my argument is correct because it ALSO shows that…]

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Give a quote that proves your evidence is real (introduce and cite your source). Each sentence that contains information must have its own parenthetical.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Describe this second piece of evidence. Restate the quote in your own words.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Explain how this evidence proves your thesis. What kind of evidence is it? What does it show?
  2. [Finish this statement: This evidence proves my argument is correct because it shows that…]

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Further explain how this evidence proves your thesis. What kind of evidence is it? What does it show?
  2. [Finish this statement: This evidence proves my argument is correct because it ALSO shows that…]

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Concluding sentence (restate the topic sentence in different words).

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

The Concluding Paragraph Worksheet

  1. Write a concluding hook several sentences long. It must be related to the thesis and fully developed.

Choose 1 of the following options. Do not use more than 1 or you risk an underdeveloped or jumpy concluding paragraph.

Choices:

  1. Summary of main points
  2. Give a recommendation
  3. Vivid quote, with explanation
  4. Future scenario
  5. Question to the reader, with answer
  6. Personal evaluation

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Restate the thesis (1-2 sentences) with a limited topic, argument, and explanation or evidence. Use a thesaurus to find different words than the thesis used.
    1. Limited topic: limits the subject described in the essay prompt.
    2. Argument: Tells what side you are on or what claim you are making. Often this is the answer to a question in the essay prompt.
    3. Explanation or evidence: Tells why your argument is correct.

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

The List of Works Cited

About MLA Format

On the first page of your essay:

  • There is a header with your last name and page number in the upper-right hand corner of the page (right corner, 1/2” from top).
  • There is a heading with your name, instructor’s name, class, and date
  • Give a title after the heading, centered in title case. Do not underline, bold, italicize, or put quotes around your title. Keep the title in 12 point font, Times New Roman.
  • Use Times New Roman 12 point font
  • Double space the entire essay
  • Use 1″ margins (1″ on the top, bottom, left, and right)
  • Indent each paragraph 5 spaces (even the first)
  • The essay should be single-sided.

Rubric

Fall 2019 Rubric: Rough Drafts

Fall 2019 Rubric: Rough Drafts

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThesis Structure

10.0 pts

*1-2 sentences long *appears somewhere on the first page *contains the limited topic *contains the argument *contains the opinion or evidence

8.0 pts

*1-2 sentences long *appears somewhere on the first page *contains the topic but may not be limited and/or *contains the argument *contains the opinion or evidence

6.0 pts

*1-2 sentences long and/or *appears somewhere on the first page and/or *contains the topic but may not be limited and/or *contains the argument and/or *may be missing opinion or evidence

4.0 pts

*1-2 sentences long and/or *appears somewhere on the first page and/or *may be missing the topic and/or *may be missing the argument and/or *may be missing opinion or evidence

2.0 pts

*may lack a thesis altogether and/or * may be longer than 2 sentences *thesis may not be on the first page and/or *is off topic and/or *has too many errors to grade

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeThesis Content

10.0 pts

*thesis is original *thesis is analytical * thesis is clear *thesis is specific

8.0 pts

*thesis is analytical * thesis may be unclear *thesis is specific

6.0 pts

*thesis is somewhat analytical (attempts to offer how/why and/or* thesis may be unclear and/or *thesis may not be specific

4.0 pts

*thesis is all summary with no analysis and/or* thesis may be unclear and/or *thesis may be too general

2.0 pts

*thesis is unclear and/or *thesis is off topic and/or *it has so many grammar errors that the topic is unclear

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOverall Organization of Essay: Structure and Length

10.0 pts

*contains an intro, body, and conclusion * contains the required number of body paragraphs required by the directions *contains clear, smooth, logical transitions between paragraphs *contains a logical order of evidence and argument

8.0 pts

*contains an intro, body, and conclusion *contains the number of body paragraphs required by the directions *contains clear, logical transitions between paragraphs, may be jumpy in places *contains a logical order of evidence and argument

6.0 pts

*contains an intro, body, and conclusion *contains the number of body paragraphs required by the directions *contains clear, logical transitions between paragraphs, may be jumpy in places and/or *evidence and argument seems out of logical order in places

4.0 pts

*contains an intro, body, but may be missing conclusion and/or *has fewer body paragraphs than the directions ask for and/or *contains clear, logical transitions between paragraphs, may be jumpy in places and/or *evidence and argument seems out of logical order

2.0 pts

*no paragraph breaks or *few paragraph breaks with no system or organization

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeOverall Organization: Introduction and Conclusion

10.0 pts

*has a unified, organized introductory strategy at least 5 sentences long in a paragraph totaling 6 sentences*has a unified, organized concluding strategy at least 5 sentences long * restates the thesis in the concluding paragraph

8.0 pts

*has a unified introductory strategy (may be disorganized) at least 5 sentences long for a paragraph totaling 6 sentences*has a unified, concluding strategy at least 5 sentences long (may be disorganized)* restates the thesis in the concluding paragraph

6.0 pts

*has an introductory strategy that is NOT unified at least 5 sentences long in a paragraph totaling 6 sentences *has a concluding strategy at least 5 sentences long (may be disorganized)* restates the thesis in the concluding paragraph

4.0 pts

*has an introductory strategy (may be disorganized) less than 5 sentences long and/or*has a concluding strategy less than 5 sentences long (may be disorganized) and/or* neglects to restate the thesis in the concluding paragraph

2.0 pts

*neglects an introductory strategy altogether and/or *neglects a concluding strategy altogether

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBody Paragraph Structure

10.0 pts

*Each body paragraph is 8-12 sentences long *has clear topic sentences *has clear concluding sentences *has a logical order *uses transitions

8.0 pts

*Each body paragraph is 8-12 sentences long *has topic sentences (may be missing one) *has concluding sentences (may be missing 1) *has a logical order *uses transitions

6.0 pts

*Most body paragraphs are 8-12 sentences long and/or *neglects some topic sentences and/or *neglects some concluding sentences *has a logical order *uses transitions

4.0 pts

*Few to no body paragraphs are 8-12 sentences long and/or *neglects topic sentences and/or *neglects concluding sentences *has a logical order *uses transitions

2.0 pts

*all body paragraphs are more or less than 8-12 sentences long

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeUse of Quotes and Evidence

10.0 pts

*all body paragraphs contain 2 pieces of reliable evidence (quotes) per paragraph *quotes/evidence are relevant to the subject as required by the directions *contains no unsupported assertions or facts without citation

8.0 pts

*contains 2 pieces of evidence (quotes), mostly reliable and/or *quotes/evidence are relevant to the subject as required by directions *contains no unsupported assertions or facts without citation

6.0 pts

*most paragraphs contain 2 pieces of evidence (quotes) *quotes/evidence are relevant to the subject as required by directions and/or *may contain some unsupported assertions or facts without citation

4.0 pts

*contains more or less than 2 pieces of evidence (quotes) per body paragraph and/or *some evidence may not be reliable or follow instructions on sourcing and/or *some evidence is off topic

2.0 pts

*contains no evidence and/or *all evidence is off-topic and/or *all evidence comes from unreliable sources

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeEvidence: Format of Quotations

10.0 pts

*quotes are properly introduced * no quotes appear in run-on sentences * sentences where quotes appear are properly punctuated.

8.0 pts

*quotes are properly introduced and/or few quotes appear in run-on sentences and or/ sentences where quotes appear are mostly properly punctuated with no more than 1 error.

6.0 pts

*most quotes are introduced and/or*some quotes may appear in run-on sentences and/or*sentences where quotes appear are mostly properly punctuated with no more than 2 errors.

4.0 pts

*most quotes are NOT introduced and/or *some quotes appear in run-on sentences and/or*sentences where quotes appear are not properly punctuated with more than 3 errors

2.0 pts

*no quotes are introduced and/or *does not offer enough quotes to evaluate mastery of the skill

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnalysis: Content

10.0 pts

*contains 2 sentences of analysis for every quote *completely and thoroughly proves the thesis *provides an original take or viewpoint when proving the thesis *analysis relates to the real world using a Toulmin warrant

8.0 pts

*contains 2 sentences of analysis for every quote *completely and thoroughly proves the thesis *analysis relates to the real world using a Toulmin warrant

6.0 pts

*most quotes have 2 sentences of analysis and/or*some sentences may only summarize rather than analyze the quote and/or *may not thoroughly prove the thesis and/or *analysis may not always relate to the real world

4.0 pts

*may be all summary with no analysis and/or *does not prove the thesis

2.0 pts

*is off topic and/or *has too many grammar errors to evaluate analysis and/or *is so underdeveloped there is not enough analysis to judge

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeTone/Grammar/Spelling/Punctuation

10.0 pts

*uses academic tone *uses precise language to express complex ideas * has 1 error or less of any kind in grammar, spelling, and punctuation

8.0 pts

*mostly uses academic tone and/or *uses precise language to express complex ideas * has 3 errors or less of any kind in grammar, spelling, and punctuation

6.0 pts

*neglects academic tone and/or * has 5 errors or less of any kind in grammar, spelling, and punctuation

4.0 pts

*neglects acade

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