Tomas is a 4-year-old male who is an only child of two professional parents. They often leave him with a babysitter or in day care when he finishes preschool. In the last few months, he has developed some motor tics, especially in his right eye. He seems to blink continuously and is often not aware of it.
Further, his preschool teacher reported that he has been making noises during quiet and playtime. When asked to control the noises, Tomas seems confused. He is unaware of the noises that he makes. His parents have also noticed that he has become very clingy during the drive to preschool each morning and that he is developing fears of water and heights. They are worried about him as he was not like this as a baby. Their doctor referred them to a child neurologist for an evaluation.
What disorder does Tomas likely have (according to your reading)? How will the child neurologist test Tomas to make a diagnosis? Explain which parts of the brain are involved in his involuntary actions and describe how this disorder can be treated.
Textbook-Ward, J. (2015). The studentâ€™s guide to cognitive neuroscience (3rd edition). Devon, UK: Psychology Press.