reply to this discussion 3 references needed sleep apnea ashley

Sleep apnea is a prevalent condition; about 18 million Americans suffer from sleep apnea. There is a higher prevalence in patients that are obese or have hypertension. Sleep apnea affects adults and children, but there is more prevalent in men, about 15%, and about 5% in women (, 2019). Sleep apnea occurs when the upper airway becomes repeatedly blocked during sleep, reducing or completely stopping airflow, which is known as obstructive sleep apnea. If the brain does not send the signals needed to breathe, the condition may be called central sleep apnea (NIH, 2019).

Wickramasinghe (2019) states physical examination finding would consist of an enlarged neck circumference men: >43 cm (17 in); women: >37 cm (15 in), narrowing of the lateral airway walls, enlarged tonsils, retrognathia or micrognathia, high-arched hard palate, systemic arterial hypertension which is present in about 50% of obstructive sleep apnea cases, congestive heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, stroke, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Wickramasinghe, 2019).

evidence-based treatment plan and patient education. Refer the patient for nocturnal polysomnography. According to Ferri (2019), behavioral modifications are recommended weight loss, Avoiding alcohol 4 to 6 hours before bed. Avoid narcotics, muscle relaxants, and sedative medication. Utilize CPAP/BiPAP/APAP or mandibular advancement devices when sleeping (Ferri, 2019). If the patient is a smoker would advise the patient to stop smoking. If the patient has allergies, the recommendation is a fluticasone nasal spray. Also, prescribe mirtazapine to decrease awaking at night. If using CPAP/BiPAP/APAP, recommend nasal lubrication to reduce drying out nares. If symptoms are continuing, the patient will be referred to ENT for potential surgical interventions.


Ferri, F. (2019). 2019 Ferri’s clinical advisor: 5 books in 1. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier.

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NIH). (2019). Sleep Apnea. Retrieved from (2019). Sleep Apnea. Retrieved from

Wickramasinghe, H. (2019). Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Retrieved from

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