question for chapter 7 8 of the zuni man woman

The attached file is chapter 7 and chapter 8 of The Zuni Man-Woman

Answer each questions below at least 300 words.

1. In Chapter 7, Roscoe’s overall thesis is that “the ‘disappearing’ of [the berdache] role was part of a larger campaign against tribal patterns of sexuality and gender. Indeed, in the history of the conquest and occupation of the New World, sexual politics have played a prominent but overlooked role, intimately tied to the transfer of native lands and resources into European and American hands.” Explain Roscoe’s idea and the evidence he provides to support it in this chapter. What evidence does he provide that Spaniards and Americans used moral disapproval of “tribal patterns of sexuality and gender” in order to justify seizing Native American land? Can you think of any contemporary examples of what Roscoe calls “sexual politics,” i.e., condemning some people’s sexuality in order to advance other unrelated political aims?

2. Explain what happened to the berdache role over time? How did American authorities undermine this role in Zuni life and make it almost completely disappear? How has the role been revived in recent years?

3. In Chapter 8, Roscoe discusses the theory of “social constructionism,” a theory that states that “gender roles and sexual identities are the products of social influences and not the manifestation of inherent or biological drives.” What does Roscoe think of this theory, and what do you think? What does Roscoe mean when he says that “advocates of this theory go too far when they deny the possibility of continuity between the cultural forms of different societies and different historical periods”?

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