anatomy assignment 4

It took the diagnosis of high blood pressure (hypertension) at the age of 23 to shock Matt into taking better care of himself. Matt had let himself go, eating too much junk food, drinking too much alcohol, and even indulging in the frequent habit of smoking cigars. Matt’s physician had to prescribe two different antihypertensive medications in order to get his blood pressure under control. She also prescribed regular exercise, a low-salt diet, modest alcohol intake, and smoking cessation. Matt was scared, really scared.

Fortunately for Matt, he took his doctor’s advice and began a dramatic lifestyle change. He worked together with Maria. His most immediate concern was that he was experiencing problems with dehydration and fatigue because he hadn’t found an effective way to drink enough fluids while exercising.

Maria showed Matt an impressive array of assessment tools for quantifying and analyzing his physiological state before, during, and after his workouts. One of the tools was urinalysis, which Matt found a bit odd, but he dutifully supplied urine samples on a regular, prescribed basis. Maria explained that Matt’s hydration status was tricky due to the medication he took to control his hypertension, and that renal status (as measured in the urinalysis) was one of the tools she could use to evaluate his physiological state.

Maria logs the following results of Matt’s urinalysis immediately after, and six hours after, a rigorous 2-hour run.

Time

Color

Specific Gravity

Protein

Glucose

pH

Before exercise

pale yellow

1.002

absent

absent

6.0

Immediately after exercise

dark yellow

1.035

small amount

absent

4.5

Six hours after exercise

yellow

1.035

absent

small amount

5.0

Questions:

  1. What does the color of Matt’s urine tell Maria about how concentrated or dilute it is?
  2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) regulates the formation of concentrated or dilute urine. In which time period is Matt’s body secreting its highest amount of ADH? Explain your answer.
  3. Maria knows that proteinuria (protein in the urine) after intense exercise is physiological (normal). However, protein is typically not present in urine. Why is that?
  4. Maria had been slightly concerned about the trace glucose that was found in Matt’s urine six hours after his exercise until she discovered that he had eaten an entire large pizza an hour before the urinalysis. Explain why glucose might show up in Matt’s urine after a particularly heavy meal.
  5. Lactic acid accumulation can be a consequence of intense exercise. Maria notes that Matt’s kidneys are working to defend his body against acidosis. How can she tell? Describe this mechanism.
  6. Matt’s regular exercise regimen has reduced his high blood pressure, allowing him to achieve normal blood pressure on a single antihypertensive medication. The medication he takes is called an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or ACE inhibitor, which blocks the activation of angiotensin II. Describe a mechanism by which angiotensin II targets the kidneys to increase extracellular fluid volume and, therefore, increase blood pressure.

All reports will be worth 4% of your grade and will be 5 points each. In order to successfully earn all 5 points you will need to:

1. Answer all questions thoroughly and completely.

2. Use at LEAST 3 references (can include information from the Primal website as a source).

3. Give credit to all sources used- citing correctly and PARAPHRASING any information taken from an outside source. Please do not copy and paste any information, even if you cite the source. Your report will be submitted through Turnitin and will allow us to see what sources were used and the exact information you took from that source- BE CAREFUL!

4. Must have a minimum of 500 words and can be in essay form OR question and answer form. (500 words not including the topic/questions given)

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